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2013
Volume 4
Volume 4, Issue 1
In This Issue
S&T Trends - Open Innovation Policies in Asian Countries
Articles
An Empirical Productivity Analysis of ASEAN Economies in Transition Towards Knowledge-Based Economy
Munshi Naser Ibne Afzal, Umme Humayara Manni
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Over the past few decades, countries in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) have achieved varying levels of economic development. In this paper, the nature and extent of productivity changes in Cobb-Douglas production function components and the growth of the knowledge economy of selected ASEAN countries, namely, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines,Thailand, Singapore plus South Korea are analyzed over the period 2005 to 2010. Utilising non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and the Malmquist total factor productivity (TFP) index, individual country’s efficiency and productivity changes which took place within this period are estimated. Although there are vast numbers of studies conducted on firmlevel and industry-level efficiencies, there is scant literature on inter-country productivity comparisons using the almquist productivity index (MPI). The Malmquist TFP index, calculated within the framework of DEA, is broken down into three constituent elements accounting for different sources of productivity growth, namely technological progress, efficiency change,and the effects of economies of scale. Our results indicate that the Philippines and Singapore reported the highest increase in TFP within the referred years, and this growth in productivity is derived from both technical efficiency gains and technological progress. On the other hand, for the knowledge economy model, there is a remarkable growth in TFP for Thailand and Philippines. A comparison with better performing countries helps to identify policies for further improvement in ASEAN member countries.

Enabling Factors and Performance of S&T Based Societal Projects: An Indian Case Study
Usha Dixit, V. C. Goyal
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The aim of the present study was to analyze various intricacies and complexities of the S&T based societal projects, and to identify the enabling factors of such projects. An analysis was carried out to assess the benefits to the community of these funded projects by evaluating the impact of technologies on the project outcomes, and on the target beneficiaries. For the present analysis, the societal projects supported during a five-year period were considered. The analysis covered 491 projects sponsored to 306 organizations in different parts of the country, at a total cost of about INR 360 million. The analysis shows that such projects not only bring tangible benefits to the target beneficiaries and the area but also empower them in deriving benefits of the technological advancements. The analysis was conducted covering two major aspects- outcome of the projects and identification of the enabling factors which governed the design, management and performance of the projects. The second part of analysis focused on the identification of a set of enabling factors comprising input and output variables to quantify the design and management aspects as well as performance of projects in terms of productive outcomes, extent of sustainability and potential for replicability. The analysis also presents a methodology to the funding agencies as well as to the planners in designing S&T based societal programmes keeping in view the critical enabling factors so that the returns from the investments are optimally utilized and to make these projects successful in terms of ensuring their replicability and utilisation in various sectors of sustainable development. Based on the analysis, the paper suggests that a package of strategies can be adopted for the projects to be more focussed, productive and sustainable over the time, particularly for development of sustainable micro-enterprises, and for potential replication and scaling up.

Re-evaluation of the Introduction of the Clinical Resident Training System and Its Effect on Medical Offices (Ikyoku) in Japan
Yuko Ito, Hiromi Saito
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Due to the introduction of the new Clinical Resident Training System introduced in 2004, the destination where interns do residency changed in Japan. Before this system, university hospitals received 70 % of the interns, but by 2008, dropped to 50%. This independence from university hospitals cause to decrease number of interns attached to medical offices (Ikyoku). A questionnaire survey targeting hospital doctors was carried out, and differences between “doctors attached to medical offices” and “doctors not attached to medical offices” were then analyzed. From this, the role of medical offices was hypothesized.As a result, it was suggested that medical offices were places for doctors in specialized fields to write papers in a foreign language or Japanese, in order to widely disseminate their medical achievements. There is concern that fewer papers may be submitted and/or the level of medical services may decrease due to this reduction in human resources in medical offices.

R&D on Nuclear Safety and Severe Accident Mitigation in China
X. Cheng
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Recently China issued an ambitious program of mid-term nuclear power development. It is expected that the total nuclear power installation will be around 200GW by 2030 and around 400GW by the middle of this century. Nuclear safety has been well recognized having the top priority in the nuclear power development, especially after Fukushima accident. Nuclear safety and severe accident research activities have been growing rapidly in recent years. Numerous projects financed by the Chinese central government, local government and nuclear industries were launched. In the frame of the “National Large Scale Project”, many projects were initiated and research infrastructure was constructed. More recently the National Energy Administration approved research projects in direct connection with the Fukushima accident. According to the newly issued Nuclear Safety Plan a much larger scale of infrastructure and community will be established for nuclear safety research. The nuclear safety research community is expanding strongly in recent years. It covers nearly nuclear industries, research centers and universities. To some degree the R&D activities in China are well coordinated. There is tight collaboration and interaction among this community. This paper gives an overview about Chinese nuclear power technology development and the R&D activities in nuclear safety and severe accident mitigation. Two R&D projects ongoing at Shanghai Jiao Tong University are selected as examples, to outline some features of nuclear safety research in China.

Book Reviews
"Knowledge, Policy and Power in International Development: A Practical Guide" by Harry Jones, Nicola Jones, Louise Shaxson, and David Walker
Donghyuk Choi
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"Ecology of Wisdom" by Arne Naess, Alan Drengson and Bill Devall
Sungjin Lee
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"Propensity Score Analysis: Statistical Methods and Applications" by Shenyang Guo and Mark W. Fraser
Inha Oh
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Science and Technology Trends
Open Innovation Policies in Asian Countries
JinHyo Joseph Yun, Woo Young Jung
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