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2013
Volume 4
Volume 4, Issue 2
In This Issue
S&T Trends - International R&D Cooperation in Asia
Special Articles
Academic Entrepreneurship:An American (Individualistic) Perspective
James D. Kettenhofen, Nicholas S. Vonortas
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Universities have traditionally served as places for teaching and learning, generators of new knowledge and understanding, repositories and preservers of knowledge, transmitters of values and builders of citizens, and neutral spaces for debate. In the United States public universities also took early on the role of assisting local economic development. In recent years, universities across the developed world have been expected to serve as prime sources of new ideas, generators of new technology, founders of new companies, and critical contributors to economic growth. Ironically, however, while society increasingly focuses on this latter role, it still compensates universities and their faculty in pretty much the old way, that is primarily on the basis of research and teaching. This inconsistency has created deep tensions that policy makers are desperately trying to resolve. This paper deals with this newly acquired role of universities through the lens of incentives for both individuals and organizations. It argues that proper incentive alignment is badly needed, that the nurturing of individual learned entrepreneurs is achievable under the right conditions, and that all sides of the triple helix have an important role to play.

Articles
Determinants of Corporate Commercialization of Public Technology Transfer: Evidence in Korea
JaeWoong Min, YoungJun Kim
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This study investigates the potential factors that might affect the successful commercialization of public technology transfer (TT), i.e., technology transfer from universities and public research institutions. We conduct an inductive and qualitative approach to identify the key organizational issues in promoting commercialization of public TT with the help of a unique survey data. The important explanatory factors relate to the researcher’s technology consultant service, R&D intensity of the company, and the prior experience of TT from the same institution. However, the TT productivity (i.e. royalty income/R&D expenditure) of the universities and public research institutions, and the engagement of technology transfer intermediary appear to be negative to successful commercialization.

Analysis of Performance-Improving Factors of International R&D Collaborations Conducted by Universities in South Korea
Sang Hyon Lee, Hayoung Cho, Daeryeok Lee
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Hence the recent global R&D trend towards large-scale, interdisciplinary co-work and technological development within a single country or company has been becoming increasingly difficult. The world has become a single enormous market, as in the case of the patent dispute between Apple and Samsung, and, consequently, there is intense competition in the field of new technology development. In view of these changes, South Korea, along with other major developed countries, is emphasizing the need for international R&D collaboration on S&T policy. However, recent OECD reports show that the indices related to the S&T internationalization of South Korea have remained at a low level compared to the OECD average. Therefore, constant efforts to enhance S&T globalization and the performance of international R&D collaboration are necessary in South Korea. In this study, given that in South Korean universities not only conduct most international collaborations with government-funded R&D projects (74.6%) but also train and produce high-quality R&D manpower, an analysis was conducted on the performance-creating factors for international collaboration on government-funded R&D projects conducted by universities based on such outputs as papers and patents, as well as on the performance-improving factors concerning output-produced international R&D collaborations. In conclusion, implications for performance enhancement were suggested through a comparison of these factors with those discussed in previous studies. On the other hand, a survey of research outputs other than papers and patents, and performance-influencing factors used by researchers with experience of international collaboration in the R&D field, was conducted and the results analyzed. As a result, additional performance evaluating indicators were also suggested to be considered for performance enhancement, because they were thought to connote the practical characteristics of international R&D collaboration.

Are Science Valleys and Clusters Panacea for a Knowledge Economy? An Investigation on Regional Innovation System (RIS)- Concepts, Theory and Empirical analysis
Munshi Naser Ibne Afzal
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This research elucidates the concept of regional innovation systems (RIS). It argues that RIS can be a platform to apply classroom innovation ideas into practical context. Key definitions are given and distinctions drawn between national and regional innovation systems. Then, by suggesting to a number of important variables portraying innovation such as education, knowledge transfer, linkage and communications, regulatory quality, cost of doing business, trade openness, R&D expenditure and high-tech export for twenty emerging and developed knowledge based economies from Asia-Pacific, Europe and Latin America are differentiate. We empirically study these features of innovative ability in our sample regions by applying nonparametric robust partial frontier order-m approach in cross-section data analysis collected from the WDI and WCY-2011 dataset for the period 2011. The empirical results highlight that South Korea, Singapore and Malaysia are the frontier region or best practice nations and follower region can emulate the best practice nations by learning their policy implications while building up a successful regional innovation system. Moreover, our study reveals that techno or science valleys and high-tech clusters are one of the panacea for a regional and thus overall economic development.

Book Reviews
"Race Against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy" by Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee
Mun-Su Park
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"Creating Silicon Valley in Europe: Public Policy Towards New Technology Industries" by Steven Casper
Junbyoung Oh
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Science and Technology Trends
International R&D Cooperation in Asia-JAPAN
Hiroshi Nagano
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International R&D Cooperation in Asia - KOREA
Du Young Park
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