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2014
Volume 5
Volume 5, Issue 1
In This Issue
S&T Trends - Safety Research and Risk Management Policy in Asia
Articles
Classification of Regional Innovation Types and Region-based Innovation Policies
Seong-ho Han, Gwang-min Yoo, Dong-gwan Kim
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The focus of regional innovation policies is shifting from the central government to local governments. The central government demands that regions enforce autonomous and responsible regional innovation policies and that regional governments seek for innovation policies fit for regional characteristics. However, the central government and local governments have not arrived yet at a conclusion on what innovation policies are appropriate for regional circumstances. In particular, even if each local government is trying to find regional innovation strategies that are based on the needs of a region, its innovation strategies turn out to be similar with those of other regions. This leads to a consequence that is inefficient not only at the national level, but also at the regional level. Existing researches on regional innovation types point out that there are remarkable differences in the types or characteristics of innovation among the regions of a nation. In addition they imply that there would be no expected innovation output in cases in which policies are enforced with ignoring such differences. This means that it is undesirable to enforce regional innovation policies under a single standard. This research, given this problem, aims to find out the characteristics and differences in innovation types among the regions in Korea and suggests appropriate policy implications by classifying such characteristics and differences. Regions were classified in consideration of the various indicators that comprise the innovation suggested by existing related researches and illustrated policies based on such characteristics and differences. This study used recent data mainly from 2012, and as a methodology, clustering analysis based on multiple factor analysis was applied. Supplementary researches on dynamically analyzing stability in regional innovation types, establishing systematic indicators based on the regional innovation theory, and developing additional indicators are necessary in the future.

Government-funded Community of Science and Technology Policy Research in Taiwan
Pei-Chun Lee, Hsin-Ning Su
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This study investigates the structure of Sci-Tech policy research community by quantitatively analyzing Sci-Tech policy research projects funded by the Taiwanese government in the recent 30 years. Taiwan’s Sci-Tech policy research networks, composed by research community and knowledge distribution systems, were quantitatively investigated using the network theory, and Taiwan’s Sci-Tech policy research map was created to achieve the purpose of two-dimensional visualization. The three-dimensional networks and two-dimensional knowledge maps on the basis of the Taiwan’s Sci-Tech policy research projects can be depicted differently by choosing different information as the network actors, e.g., institute, project investigator, or key word, to reflect Sci-Tech policy research structures in micro-, meso-, and macro-levels, respectively. Sci-Tech policy research projects were retrieved from GRB (Government Research Bulletin) database that archives research projects sponsored by the Taiwanese government. A total of 143 projects were retrieved in this study with most research projects (59%) belonging to the field of management, economics, and others (social sciences). It can be observed that more Sci-Tech policy research projects in the field of technology management have been funded, and the coverage of fields has been increased since 2000. This indicates not only the emergence but also the interdisciplinary phenomenon of Sci-Tech policy research in Taiwan.

University-Industry Cooperation Policy in Korea: Implementation and Implication of the Enactment of Law of Industrial Education and University-Industry Cooperation, 2003-2011
Mun Su Park, Seung Ouk Jeong, Tae-Sik Park
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This article examines the evolution of university-industry relations which overviews the policy implementations in Korea since 2003. In Korea, the current policy perspective tends to tighten university-industry link in science and technology policy at national economic system. Moreover, policy stance aims to expand university-industry cooperation in regional level. We aim to reflect a university-industry policy implementation and exploit implications for policy and future research to enhance the contributions of university-based research for social innovation and economic performance. This paper overviews the trend of national university-industry cooperation policy during the 2003-2011 period in Korea using data on Survey on University-Industry Cooperation Activities in 2011 and The Law on Industrial Education and University-industry Cooperation of 2003. In our analysis, there was a fundamental change for each of infrastructure and organization,technology transfer, cooperative education and training, and exchange of human capital in relation between industry and university. We highlight that each is remarkable policy outcomes for building the foundation and institutionalization to achieve long term national policy goal. We hope this initial research provides an implication and agenda for policy makers and researchers in a variety of disciplinary and methodological perspectives in the field of university-industry cooperation.

The Effects of Policy Portfolio for Greenhouse Gases Reduction and Renewable Energy Expansion: An Analysis Using Computable General Equilibrium
Yeong Jun Yeo, Jeong-dong Lee, Inha Oh
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South Korea has pledged to reduce its GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions by 30%, relative to the country’s projected levels (BAU, Business as Usual) by 2020, and has implemented and promoted various policies to meet the target. Many other countries in the world introduce various policy tools for a low-carbon economy in order to achieve both targets for economic growth and environmental sustainability. The GHG reduction policies can be roughly classified into two major policy types. One is technology-push policy, which includes the research development policy. This type of policies intends to meet the GHG reduction target based on the development of low-carbon or alternative energy technologies. The other one is the market-based policy (pulling the demand for technological innovation), such as emission trading scheme and renewable energy expansion policy (Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) and Feed-in Tariff (FIT)). It is important to understand the difference between the two types of policies, technology-push policy and demand-pull policy, which one is more effective to reduce GHG emissions, and to identify the ideal mix of the two. However, there are not enough relevant previous studies that theoretically and empirically analyzed these subjects. In this regard, the study analysed the effects of these two ways to reduce GHG emissions. One is supported by R&D investments on technologies in energy and environment sector, and it is the main policy instrument within the technology-push policy. The other one is supported by the implementation of emission trading scheme, Renewable Portfolio Standard, or Feed-in Tariff that are the main demand-pull policies. Also, this study drew implications for the analysis on the effects of the existing classification of the GHG reduction policies of the government. In addition, the study analysed the effects of the policy mix to reduce GHG emissions that the government of South Korea currently considers. To this end, the study designs an energy–environment computable general equilibrium model that is applied to the economic system of South Korea and conducts an empirical analysis based on the model.

Science and Technology Trends
Disaster Risk Reduction in the Asia-Pacific
Sujit Mohanty
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Towards Integrated Risk Governance: Progress in Science and Technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in China
Qian Ye
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Science and Technology Policy for Social Safety in Japan
Takuto Miyamoto
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Disaster Prevention Policy and Safety R&D in Korea
Chi Hun Lee and Jae Hyun Shim
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Thailand's Disaster Risk Management Policy
Arun Pinta
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