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Volume 6
Volume 6, Issue 2
In This Issue
S&T Trends - Science Diplomacy
Special Articles
Developing Gender Indicators in Science and Technology from National Innovation Systems (NIS) Perspective
Joseph Kang, Jonghwa Park, and Youngah Park

As a part of innovation studies, gendered innovations came into spotlight in science and technology as it not only improves equality among the people in S&T, but also ensures scientific excellence. However, there are many challenges in gender policy in science and technology. There is a lack of policy study and development, compared to S&T and innovation policy. Many studies in gendered innovations have been conducted, but limited systematic policy package has been developed. In the field of innovation research, measuring innovation and development of indicators have been significant issues. In this context, this research proposes a practical framework which could be used to develop indicators related to gendered innovations by using the concept of National Innovation Systems and categorizing the elements shaping gendered innovations in a system. In addition, this research derives indicators to reveal national capabilities of   gendered innovations from the framework and suggests an indicator system, called Gendered Innovations Index (GII).

Enhancing Innovation Platform: Bitgaram Innocity Gwangju Using ICT in Korea
Junghee Han and Kyoungnam Kim

This study explores the blueprint of Innocity in Gwangju, Korea, and presents desirable alternatives for it to become a sustainable futuristic city. Accomplishing the policy aims of the Innocity based on the relocation of public agencies out of the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) hinges on whether various innovation activities can be spontaneously generated. In order for Innocity to self-sufficiently lead the regional development, knowledge production and innovation through networking among the heterogeneous actors in the Innocity is needed. This study proposes a Living Lab model as a platform for communication using ICT for the construction of the Bitgaram Innocity Energy Valley. In other words, this study presents the Living Lab model, a process of knowledge production and flow through various types of Living Labs. Amongst them, this paper underlines Research Living Lab and Corporate Living Lab and proposes using business incubation centers as the core of the platform.  

Analysis and Plan for Improvement of Technology Transfer Efficiency for Public Institutes
In-Jong Lim

This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) to analyze and evaluate the efficiency of technology transfers within public institutes. Research funding, research manpower, Technology Licensing (TLO) manpower and TLO operational costs are four input factors; the number of contracts for technology transfer and TLO operational costs are two output factors. The significant variables selected for evaluation of the efficiency of technology transfers are regional location, and type of research institute.   
The analysis arrived at the following two conclusions: First, in the relocation of an institute the priority must be to create an environment that fosters research collaboration among industry, academia and research institutes by providing a well-organized infrastructure. Second, each research institute has to be able to conduct R&D according to their mandate.  

Development Path of University and Industry Collaboration (UIC) Activities: Case of Japan and Thailand
Siriporn Pittayasophon and Patarapong Intarakumnerd

This article investigates the development path of university and industry collaboration (hereinafter UIC). The remarkable findings are as follows; Firstly, Japan and Thailand have different level of national innovation systems; nonetheless, common development patterns were found. In the cases of UIC evolving overtime, two development paths were found: step-by-step (from low-to medium and to high relational intensity) and leapfrog (from low to high or from medium to high). For those not evolving overtime, both UIC set fixed specific goals and collaborative patterns. University’s expertise (supply-push) and firm's technological capability (demand-pull), trust (built by both intermediaries and  the two partners) and mutual interest are drivers shaping development paths. Secondly, university-industry collaboration activities have not developed when researchers were not interested to continue working or firm lacked capabilities to carry on projects after government supports were terminated. Lastly, important activities in two national systems are different. Researcher mobility from companies to universities frequently happened in the Japanese cases, but in the Thai cases, mobility of students is much more prevalent.  

Science and Technology Trends
Science Diplomacy in the USA: Perspective of a Former Science and Technology Advisor to the U.S. Secretary of State
E. William Colglazier


Science Diplomacy in Korea: Towards Joint Growth and Better Relations by Sharing Knowledge and Experience from Korean Economic Development
Seung Jun Yoo


Synergistic Cooperation of Science and Diplomacy: Case Study of Science and Technology Diplomacy of Japan
Takuto Miyamoto