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Volume 8
Volume 8, Issue 2
In This Issue
S&T Trends - Policy Trajectories and Initiatives in STEM Education
Special Articles
Policy Integration in the Energy Sector of Indonesia: Analysis of Current Climate Policy Implementation and the Way Forward Towards SDGs
Syamsidar Thamrin and Heiner von Lüpke


Internationalisation of R&D: A Review of Drivers, Impacts, and New Lines of Research
Bernhard Dachs

This paper reviews the growing literature on the internationalisation of R&D in the business sector. By internationalisation of R&D, this paper means the fact that firms conduct research and development at locations outside their home countries. The survey focuses on three issues: first, the drivers of the process at the country, the sectoral and the firm level why firms go abroad with R&D activities. Second, evidence on the effects of the internationalisation of R&D on the host and home countries of multinational firms. So far, there is a consensus in the literature that R&D internationalisation benefits the host countries. Third, the paper discusses some new lines of research on R&D internationalisation related to the role of indirect funding for R&D, R&D internationalisation in services and multinationals from emerging economies.


Ex-ante Evaluation System of Government R&D Programs in Korea
Hyun-Kyu Kang

Since 2008, the Korean government has employed the preliminary feasibility study (PFS), an ex-ante evaluation, to enhance the efficiency of fiscal management in large-scale government research and development (R&D) programs and to determine whether to invest in each R&D program. Most PFS results are directly reflected in budget formulations, making the PFS an important step in budgetary decisions. The PFS has been developed and improved as a comprehensive evaluation system of R&D program proposals in terms of technology, policy and economics. Over the past 10 years, 66.2% of R&D programs and 37.4% of program budgets have passed the PFS. The PFS has contributed to enhanced fiscal efficiency in public investment by preventing non-feasible programs from being launched. This paper explains the framework, methodologies, results, and issues of the PFS on R&D programs in Korea.


Study on Innovation Model for the Enhancement of Entrepreneurial Competency of Science and Technology Personnel in the Era of the 4th Industrial Revolution
Jung-hwan Lee

This study developed out of a recognition that to adapt to the era of the 4th industrial Revolution, the direction of human resource policy in the field of science and technology must shift from quantitative support to qualitative improvement. To accomplish this type of improvement, an in-depth understanding of science and technology personnel is needed, and to this end the author began by classifying science and technology personnel based on creativity, and carried out an analysis on the level of entrepreneurial competency for each group. Then, the author proposes a mutual cooperation model that will enable the fostering of specialized talents that meet the needs of industry, and will strengthen the entrepreneurial competency of government, corporations and universities.

A Study of Foreign Direct Investment and Technology Spillover Effect: Empirical Evidence from OECD Member Countries
Geon-woo Park

The study aims to empirically analyze the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on the economic development and technology spillover effect of OECD member countries. Technology spillover through FDI has been one of the most important topics of discussion related to FDI, and various approaches have been taken to address this topic since the late 1980s. This is because the effects of FDI have great significance in enhancing the productivity of local firms, and in promoting national competitiveness and economic growth. Nevertheless, previous studies lacked a comparative analysis between countries, and were mainly focused on a single industrial field within a specific country. To address this shortcoming, the study tried to overcome the limitations of existing studies, and used vector auto regression analysis, Granger causality analysis, impulse response function model, and panel regression analysis to discover more concrete implications. According to the analysis, a correlation was found in some of the OECD member countries, but the existence of a technology spillover effect differed in each country. It is expected that the findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the productivity and technology spillover effects from FDI.


Science and Technology Trends
STEAM Education in Korea: Current Policies and Future Directions
Oksu Hong


Integrating STEM Education into the Global Landscape in China
Yuan Gao


STEM Education in Malaysia: Policy, Trajectories and Initiatives
Edy Hafizan Mohd Shahali, Ihsan Ismail and Lilia Halim