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Volume 9
Volume 9, Issue 1
In This Issue
S&T Trends - The Advent of Smart Cities
An Investigation on Input-Output Indicators of Innovation Strategies of Singapore and UAE
Munshi Naser Ibne Afzal, Shamim Ahmad Siddiqui and Jhalak Gope

This paper exhibits the salient properties of innovation and scrutinizes the innovation strategies of Singapore and UAE. The term innovation can be engaged broadly in various economic terms whereas this study specified the generalized form of innovation for a country to achieve the economic and social wellbeing. The study focused on the case study approach by using descriptive statistics. Some significant indications of advanced innovation setting are seen in Singaporean economy in contrast to UAE. Possession of huge in land natural resources in UAE region could not assist the sound development of innovation condition whereas it is visible in Singaporean economy with very low natural resources in proportion of UAE. Singapore’s exports of high tech products are 10 to 5 times larger than those of UAE which signal the better innovation and investment condition of the former. The business incubation is appreciated and banks are found broad toward the startups. The South-Eastern country also identified in better situation than the gulf country in knowledge based innovation - in account of patents and scientific articles published by the residents. The study found innovation as a thrust in economic activity for a country. UAE is a better performer in cost of doing business compared to Singapore. Some more effective policies should be in operation in order to prolong the continued development trend of Singapore, whereas UAE needs more engrossment on business incubation, openness of trade and proper utilization of natural resources. 

Commercialization of Research through Spin-off Enterprises in Vietnam During the 1990s
Erik Baark, Mai Hà, Pham Tuan Huy and Pham Thi Bích Ngoc

Science and technology policy in Vietnam has been dominated by a linear model of innovation and the influence of a centralized science management approach transferred from the Soviet Union. However, after the Vietnamese Government embarked on reforms introducing a combination of market driven and State regulated economic mechanisms in the 1980s, scientific organizations were encouraged to commercialize research. In the transition, the leading research organization, known as National Center of Natural Science and Technology (NCNST), pursued technological development in addition to scientific research, and started to establish the first spin-off enterprises to commercialize its innovations. This paper employs institutional analysis to delineate the experience of the spin-off ventures on the basis of government resolutions to support the establishment of spin-off firms, together with the basic institutional requirements such as the autonomy of organizations and the need to mobilize capital for startup funding. Combined with a few case studies, this analysis shows that commercialization of research is difficult in a transition economy without institutional reforms that fully support autonomy, and encourages markets and financial support for spin-off ventures.  

Policy Framework Addressing Legal Impediments to Open Access to Public Funded Research Data in Malaysia
Haswira Nor Mohamad Hashim

This study proposed a policy framework addressing legal impediments to open access to public funded in Malaysia. Previous studies have identified legal impediments to open access arising from intellectual property, confidentiality, privacy, national security, patents and tort laws. The legal impediments have not been fully addressed by the existing policies of public research funding agencies and research institutions in Malaysia, hence the need for a policy framework to be proposed. This study analysed and compared various policies on open access to research data currently adopted by civil society, government bodies, research funding agencies and research institutions in Australia, Canada, the EU, the UK and the USA. This comparative analysis identified various measures deemed viable to address the legal impediments to open access to research data. The proposed policy framework is of international standard and can become a benchmark in pursuing the objective of enabling open access to public funded research data among public research funding agencies and research institutions in Malaysia. 

A Study of Business Ventures’ Successful R&D Mechanism through Open Innovation
Do-Hyung Park, In-Jin Yoo and Bong-Goon Seo

The study focuses on the determinants of business ventures’ sales by categorizing intra-enterprise resources in order to properly assess their influence, and classifying firms’ competencies into two dimensions to observe the difference between the performance determinants of business ventures in each dimension. Through factor analysis, the firms’ competencies including technology, price, quality, design, organization management, and marketing competitiveness were categorized into two dimensions of technological competence and management competence, and the firms were categorized as either technology-driven or management-driven, based on the comparative intensity of the two dimensions. Then, performance determinants were categorized into 6 superordinate categories of enterprise status, entrepreneur resource, human resource, financial resource, technological resource, and external resource, and the influence of the subordinate factors on sales were analyzed using two-year data of “The Survey of Korea Business Ventures.” First, the results showed that 22 out of 33 variables used in the model had a significant influence on the sales of business ventures. Second, the analysis on the difference of determinants by group found that of the 33 independent variables, 13 variables at maximum and 8 at minimum were found to significantly influence sales, which verifies the difference between sales determinants in each dimension.

Science and Technology Trends
A Big Data-Based Approach for Understanding Smart City Initiatives of South Korea
Choongik Choi


Building a Smart Nation: Singapore’s Digital Journey
Siu Loon Hoe


The Advent of Smart Cities in India
Jagan A. Shah